Quick Answer: How Late Can Microcephaly Be Diagnosed?

Why is my skull so small?

Microcephaly most often occurs because the brain does not grow at a normal rate.

The growth of the skull is determined by brain growth.

Brain growth takes place while a baby is in the womb and during infancy.

Conditions that affect brain growth can cause smaller than normal head size..

Do babies with microcephaly grow normally?

Children with a mild form of this disorder may have no other problems. They grow normally during childhood and adolescence and still meet age-appropriate growth milestones as they get older. Others can have severe problems with learning and moving.

How common is Macrocephaly?

Benign familial macrocephaly (external hydrocephalus) accounts for about 50% of cases. It is an autosomal dominant condition that is four times more common in boys. Most affected individuals are developmentally normal. Other family members also have large heads.

Does a small head always mean microcephaly?

Microcephaly is a birth defect in which a baby’s head is smaller than expected, compared to babies of the same sex and age. Babies with mild microcephaly often don’t have problems other than small head size.

What percentile is considered microcephaly?

Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean for age and sex or roughly less than the 2nd percentile. Conversely, macrocephaly is defined as a head circumference greater than 2 SDs above the mean or greater than the 98th percentile.

How does microcephaly affect a child?

But depending on the cause and severity of the microcephaly, complications may include: Developmental delays, such as in speech and movement. Difficulties with coordination and balance. Dwarfism or short stature.

Can microcephaly go away?

Microcephaly is a lifelong condition. There is no known cure or standard treatment for microcephaly. Because microcephaly can range from mild to severe, treatment options can range as well. Babies with mild microcephaly often don’t experience any other problems besides small head size.

What does small head size indicate?

Microcephaly is a medical condition in which the circumference of the head is smaller than normal because the brain has not developed properly or has stopped growing. Microcephaly can be present at birth or it may develop in the first few years of life.

Can you have microcephaly and be normal?

Microcephaly in children is a rare and genetic condition. Some children with microcephaly are both with normal intelligence and have normal developmental milestones, but their heads will always be smaller than normal children for their age and sex. Even in such cases, a regular follow-up with the doctor is advised.

How long do babies live with microcephaly?

There is no standard life expectancy for microcephalic babies because outcomes depend on so many factors, and the severity of the condition can range from mild to severe. Babies with mild microcephaly may still meet the same milestones like speaking, sitting and walking as a child without the disorder.

Can microcephaly be misdiagnosed?

Recently, microcephaly has usually been misdiagnosed only by ultrasound via measurement of head circumfer- ence (HC). Different literatures use different standards for diagnosis of microcephaly with head circumference.

When can microcephaly be detected?

Although microcephaly and intracranial calcifications are typically detected during ultrasounds in the late second and early third trimester of pregnancy, these findings might be detected as early as 18-20 weeks gestation.

What is microcephaly caused by?

Causes of congenital microcephaly include: Prenatal infections: Exposure to the Zika virus, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, can damage nerve cells in the brain. Other infectious agents can also cause microcephaly, including rubella (German measles), chickenpox, toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus.

How is microcephaly diagnosed?

Microcephaly may be diagnosed before birth by prenatal ultrasound. This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to make images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds let healthcare providers see the internal organs as they function. They also show blood flow through blood vessels.

When should I be concerned about my baby’s head size?

For a doctor to diagnose macrocephaly, the measurement of the head around its widest part needs to be larger than the 98th percentile. Macrocephaly may sometimes be a sign of an underlying condition that requires treatment. In other cases, it may occur due to genetics, including a family history of macrocephaly.