Question: Which Mutation Has The Greatest Effect?

Which type of mutation is more harmful?

1).

Because an insertion or deletion results in a frame-shift that changes the reading of subsequent codons and, therefore, alters the entire amino acid sequence that follows the mutation, insertions and deletions are usually more harmful than a substitution in which only a single amino acid is altered..

What happens when there is a deletion mutation?

A deletion mutation occurs when a wrinkle forms on the DNA template strand and subsequently causes a nucleotide to be omitted from the replicated strand (Figure 3). Figure 3: In a deletion mutation, a wrinkle forms on the DNA template strand, which causes a nucleotide to be omitted from the replicated strand.

Which block mutation is least damaging?

Point MutationsPoint Mutations A point mutation—the change of a single nitrogen base in a DNA sequence—is usually the least harmful type of DNA mutation. Codons are a sequence of three nitrogen bases in a row that are “read” by messenger RNA during transcription.

What are 3 causes of mutations?

Natural exposure of an organism to certain environmental factors, such as ultraviolet light and chemical carcinogens (e.g., aflatoxin B1), also can cause mutations. A common cause of spontaneous point mutations is the deamination of cytosine to uracil in the DNA double helix.

How do you identify DNA mutations?

Single base pair mutations can be identified by any of the following methods: Direct sequencing, which involves identifying each individual base pair, in sequence, and comparing the sequence to that of the normal gene.

What happens if mutations are not corrected?

Mutations can occur during DNA replication if errors are made and not corrected in time. … However, mutation can also disrupt normal gene activity and cause diseases, like cancer. Cancer is the most common human genetic disease; it is caused by mutations occurring in a number of growth-controlling genes.

What type of mutation is least likely to affect the protein?

The correct answer is (c) substitution. A substitution mutation occurs when one nucleotide is exchanged for another in the DNA sequence.

Which mutation will cause translation to stop?

Thus, nonsense mutations occur when a premature nonsense or stop codon is introduced in the DNA sequence. When the mutated sequence is translated into a protein, the resulting protein is incomplete and shorter than normal. Consequently, most nonsense mutations result in nonfunctional proteins.

What mutations Cannot occur?

Somatic mutation cannot occur in a child after birth. It occurs in the body in any of the cells except the germ cells. Thus, they are not passed on to children. These are caused by the environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation or to certain chemicals.

What are the effects of a silent mutation?

Silent mutations are known to have other effects. For example, they can change the way that RNA, the molecule that bridges DNA to protein production, is cut and spliced together.

Are all mutations harmful?

No; only a small percentage of mutations cause genetic disorders—most have no impact on health or development. For example, some mutations alter a gene’s DNA sequence but do not change the function of the protein made by the gene.

Why are nonsense mutations harmful?

Direct damage to DNA or errors in the processes that generate messenger RNA (mRNA) from the DNA template can introduce mutations, with potentially harmful consequences. … Nonsense mutations introduce a stop codon ‘upstream’ of the correct signal so that translation is stopped early and a truncated protein is made.

Which mutation would have the greatest effect?

The most serious of these mutations will be the insertion of 2 bases. Becasue the genetic code is read in triplets, a 2 base insetion will alter the reading frame of the code causing a frameshift mutation meaning every amino acid after the site of the mutation will be incorrect.

Which type of mutation would cause the greatest effect on a protein?

Which type of mutation, a frameshift or a point mutation, has more effect on the organism? Why? A frameshift mutation has more effect because after it, all amino acids are altered. Usually a frameshift mutation results in the synthesis of a nonfunctional protein.

What are the 4 types of mutation?

There are three types of DNA Mutations: base substitutions, deletions and insertions.Base Substitutions. Single base substitutions are called point mutations, recall the point mutation Glu —–> Val which causes sickle-cell disease.Deletions. … Insertions.

What are the two main types of mutations?

Two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and somatic mutations.Germline mutations occur in gametes. These mutations are especially significant because they can be transmitted to offspring and every cell in the offspring will have the mutation.Somatic mutations occur in other cells of the body.

What is the difference between a missense mutation and a nonsense mutation?

Missense mutation. This type of mutation is a change in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene. Nonsense mutation. … This type of mutation results in a shortened protein that may function improperly or not at all.